Childhood Trauma

Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event. When that trauma leads to pos ttraumatic stress disorder, damage may involve physical changes inside the brain and to brain chemistry, which changes the person’s response to future stress.

A traumatic event involves a single experience, or an enduring or repeating event or events, that completely overwhelm the individual’s ability to cope or integrate the ideas and emotions involved with that experience. The sense of being overwhelmed can be delayed by weeks, years or even decades, as the person struggles to cope with the immediate circumstances. Psychological trauma can lead to serious long-term negative consequences that are often overlooked even by mental health professionals: “If clinicians fail to look through a trauma lens and to conceptualize client problems as related possibly to current or past trauma, they may fail to see that trauma victims, young and old, organize much of their lives around repetitive patterns of reliving and warding off traumatic memories, reminders, and affects.”[1]

Trauma can be caused by a wide variety of events, but there are a few common aspects. There is frequently a violation of the person’s familiar ideas about the world and of their human rights, putting the person in a state of extreme confusion and insecurity. This is also seen when people or institutions, depended on for survival, violate or betray or disillusion the person in some unforeseen way.[2]

Psychological trauma may accompany physical trauma or exist independently of it. Typical causes and dangers of psychological trauma are sexual abuse, bullying, domestic violence, indoctrination, being the victim of an alcoholic parent, the threat of either, or the witnessing of either, particularly in childhood. Catastrophic events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, war or other mass violence can also cause psychological trauma. Long-term exposure to situations such as extreme poverty or milder forms of abuse, such as verbal abuse, can be traumatic (though verbal abuse can also potentially be traumatic as a single event).

However, different people will react differently to similar events. One person may experience an event as traumatic while another person would not suffer trauma as a result of the same event. In other words, not all people who experience a potentially traumatic event will actually become psychologically traumatized.[3]

Symptoms of trauma

People who go through these types of extremely traumatic experiences often have certain symptoms and problems afterwards. How severe these symptoms are depends on the person, the type of trauma involved, and the emotional support they receive from others. Reactions to and symptoms of trauma can be wide and varied, and differ in severity from person to person. A traumatized individual may experience one or several of them.[5]

After a traumatic experience, a person may re-experience the trauma mentally and physically, hence avoiding trauma reminders, also called triggers, as this can be uncomfortable and even painful. They may turn to psychoactive substances including alcohol to try to escape the feelings. Re-experiencing symptoms are a sign that the body and mind are actively struggling to cope with the traumatic experience.[5]

Triggers and cues act as reminders of the trauma, and can cause anxiety and other associated emotions. Often the person can be completely unaware of what these triggers are. In many cases this may lead a person suffering from traumatic disorders to engage in disruptive or self-destructive coping mechanisms, often without being fully aware of the nature or causes of their own actions. Panic attacks are an example of a psychosomatic response to such emotional triggers.

Consequently, intense feelings of anger may surface frequently, sometimes in very inappropriate or unexpected situations, as danger may always seem to be present, as much as it is actually present and experienced from past events. Upsetting memories such as images, thoughts, or flashbacks may haunt the person, and nightmares may be frequent.[6] Insomnia may occur as lurking fears and insecurity keep the person vigilant and on the lookout for danger, both day and night.

The person may not remember what actually happened while emotions experienced during the trauma may be re-experienced without the person understanding why (see Repressed memory). This can lead to the traumatic events being constantly experienced as if they were happening in the present, preventing the subject from gaining perspective on the experience. This can produce a pattern of prolonged periods of acute arousal punctuated by periods of physical and mental exhaustion.[7]

In time, emotional exhaustion may set in, leading to distraction, and clear thinking may be difficult or impossible. Emotional detachment, as well as dissociation or “numbing out”, can frequently occur. Dissociating from the painful emotion includes numbing all emotion, and the person may seem emotionally flat, preoccupied, distant, or cold. The person can become confused in ordinary situations and have memory problems.

Some traumatized people may feel permanently damaged when trauma symptoms do not go away and they do not believe their situation will improve. This can lead to feelings of despair, loss of self-esteem, and frequently depression. If important aspects of the person’s self and world understanding have been violated, the person may call their own identity into question.[5] Often despite their best efforts, traumatized parents may have difficulty assisting their child with emotion regulation, attribution of meaning, and containment of post-traumatic fear in the wake of the child’s traumatization, leading to adverse consequences for the child.[8][9] In such instances, it is in the interest of the parent(s) and child for the parent(s) to seek consultation as well as to have their child receive appropriate mental health services.

Treatment

A number of psychotherapy approaches have been designed with the treatment of trauma in mind—EMDR, Somatic Experiencing, Biofeedback, Internal Family Systems Therapy, and Sensorimotor psychotherapy.

There is a large body of empirical support for the use of cognitive behavioral therapy [14][15] for the treatment of trauma-related symptoms,[16] including Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.[17] Institute of Medicine guidelines identify cognitive behavioral therapies as the most effective treatments for PTSD.[18] Two of these cognitive behavioral therapies, Prolonged Exposure [19] and Cognitive Processing Therapy,[20] are being disseminated nationally by the Department of Veterans Affairs for the treatment of PTSD.[21][22]

Trauma and stress disorders

Main articles: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex post-traumatic stress disorder

 

References

1. ^ http://mentalhealth.vermont.gov/sites/dmh/files/report/cafu/DMH-CAFU_Psychological_Trauma_Moroz.pdf

2. ^ DePrince, A.P. & Freyd, J.J. (2002). “The Harm of Trauma: Pathological fear, shattered assumptions, or betrayal?” In J. Kauffman (Ed.) Loss of the Assumptive World: a theory of traumatic loss. (pp 71–82). New York: Brunner-Routledge. [1]

3. ^ Storr CL, Ialongo NS, Anthony JC, Breslau N (2007).Childhood antecedents of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry, 164(1), 119-25.

4. ^ Hickey, E. W. (2010). Serial Murderers and Their Victims. Blemont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

5. ^ a b c Carlson, Eve B.; Josef Ruzek. “Effects of Traumatic Experiences: A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet”. National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Archived from the original on 2004-06-12. http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/clients/sub.cfm?source=mhealth/factsheets/effects. Retrieved 2005-12-09.

6. ^ Loyola College in Maryland: Trauma and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

7. ^ Rothschild B (2000). The body remembers: the psychophysiology of trauma and trauma treatment. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-70327-4.

8. ^ Schechter DS, Zygmunt A, Coates SW, Davies M, Trabka KA, McCaw J, Kolodji A., Robinson JL (2007). Caregiver traumatization adversely impacts young children’s mental representations of self and others. Attachment & Human Development, 9(3), 187-20.

9. ^ Schechter DS, Coates SW, Kaminer T, Coots T, Zeanah CH, Davies M, Schonfield IS, Marshall RD, Liebowitz MR Trabka KA, McCaw J, Myers MM (2008). Distorted maternal mental representations and atypical behavior in a clinical sample of violence-exposed mothers and their toddlers. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation , 9(2), 123-149.